Humans grow and develop based on the guidelines mentioned in the genetic materials. For example a child will have brown eyes if either father or mother has a trait or their ancestors would have possessed. Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk who started with the researches of hereditary. His discovery the principles of hereditary through number of experiments and determined how the traits are carried forward through generation of living things.
DNA, Genes and Chromosomes
DNA, Genes and Chromosome are traits given to you by your parents (father and mother). They are set of instructions present in your cells and all living organism in the atmosphere are built up of single cell or number of cells. Cells are of different types like the nerve cells, skin cells each of which takes up a different shape and perform a unique task. These cells are generally covered by membrane which protect the cells from the surrounding environment. The membrane composed of liquid material called cytoplasm. Cytoplasm are generally present in the nucleus, Chromosome are present inside the nucleus. Inside the nucleus of each cell, the DNA is packed into thread like structures called chromosome. Genes contains information to make protein which is a vital ingredient what your body needs.
Protein are essential components need to maintain the structure of the body. RRNA is an ingredient of the ribosome responsible for protein synthesis in all living organism. There are three major types of RNA that is present in the cell in charge of transfer of amino acids during protein synthesis. They are
- rRNA(Ribosomal RNA)
- mRNA (Messenger RNA)
- transfer RNA
Following replication, the DNA condenses into chromosomes. Chromosome are essential component that determine the sex of an organism. Boy has a XY chromosome whereas a girl has XX chromosome.